The University of Sheffield
Department of Geography

Indices of Multiple Deprivation

English Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2007 and 2010

IMD: EnglandThe Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), funded by the Department for Communities and Local Government, are England’s main research tool for the identification of deprived neighbourhoods. The IMD represents quantitatively robust high-profile applied research and are used extensively with academia, central governemt and local government to research, target and resource deprived communities. Adam was part of the team that constructed the IMD 2007 and also worked on the construction of the IMD 2010 prior to leaving Oxford University to join the University of Sheffied in 2010. 

The IMD are built from over 40 separate indicators across administrative, survey and census data sources which together span seven ‘domains’ of deprivation: employment, income, health, crime, education, living environment and barriers to services. The IMD are built at the LSOA small area geography (around 1500 residents) which allows detailed spatial patterns in different types of deprivation to be identified, aiding effective targetting of policy interventions and resource allocations.

Whilst the IMD gives a multidimensional picture of deprivation at one point in time Tracking Neighbourhoods: The Economic Deprivation Index analyses the economic trajectories of the most deprived neighbourhoods in England between 1999 and 2005.


South African Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2001

IMD: S AfricaAdam was also part of the team to apply the IMD methodology to the South African context in building the small area South African IMD 2001 based on domains and indicators from the South African Census 2001 data. The project was funded by the South African National Department for Social Development and on completion the SAIMD was presented directly to the Social Cluster of cabinet ministers in South Africa. As with the english IMD, the SAIMD has quickly become a central tool for national, provincial and municipality governments in providing a spatially detailed evidence base for identifying, tackling and resourcing small area geographical deprivation in post-Apartheid South Africa. Before building the SAIMD, phase one of the project involved the construction of a new statistical geography for the country – Datazones.


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