Please answer the questions below to calculate the ten year probability of fracture with BMD.
For the clinical risk factors a yes or no response is asked for. If the field is left blank, then a "no" response is assumed. See also notes on risk factors.
The risk factors used are the following:
Notes on risk factors
A special situation pertains to a prior history of vertebral fracture. A fracture detected as a radiographic observation alone (a morphometric vertebral fracture) counts as a previous fracture. A prior clinical vertebral fracture or a hip fracture is an especially strong risk factor. The probability of fracture computed may therefore be underestimated. Fracture probability is also underestimated with multiple fractures.
Smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoids
These risk factors appear to have a dose-dependent effect, i.e. the higher the exposure, the greater the risk. This is not taken into account and the computations assume average exposure. Clinical judgment should be used for low or high exposures.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
RA is a risk factor for fracture. However, osteoarthritis is, if anything, protective. For this reason reliance should not be placed on a patient's report of 'arthritis' unless there is clinical or laboratory evidence to support the diagnosis.
Bone mineral density (BMD)
The site and reference technology is DXA at the femoral neck. T-scores are based on the NHANES reference values for women aged 20-29 years. The same absolute values are used in men.